Patellar Instability

Patellar Instability

According to Dr. Hu Xu of the Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, proximal soft-tissue realignment is the main surgical intervention for recurrent patellar instability. In recent years, all-inside arthroscopic procedures or mini-open surgeries comes to replace traditional operations which have more associated morbidity and poor cosmetic results. In this article (ORTHOPEDICS July 2011;34(7):524), Xu and his colleagues report a very simple and all-inside arthroscopic technique for the operative treatment of recurrent patellar instability. Using two epidural needles in several steps and no accessory portals required, the medial patellar retinaculum is imbricated to the desired tension. The combination of lateral release and medial retinacular placation obviously improves the patellar tracking compared with pre-operation.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease

Recently, Fairman Studios was asked to create another cover piece for the American Academy of Family Physicians on the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting one-third of Americans over age 85.  It is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive  decline.  Amyloid plaque accumulation, neurofibrillary tau tangles and depletion of acetylcholine are among the pathologic manifestations of AD.  While there are no clearly effective preventive modalities currently, hypertension treatment, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, physical activity and cognitive engagement demonstrate modest potential.

The Genetic Journey

The Genetic Journey

This informational graphic visually summarizes the diverse topics of genetic science that researchers are investigating —such as DNA markers, cellular pathways, chromosomes, mosquito genomes, biostatistics and ethics—to find new ways to improve global health.  Through a visually stimulating portrayal of a wide variety of current genetic research areas, this spread exhibits significant scientific investigations impact on human medicine span from the microscopic to the macroscopic. The spread conveys the 12 specific genetic research areas described and summarized in captions and expressed in the panoramic display, enabling new scientific insight.  The use of graphic symbols at the beginning of each description helps the viewer to identify each of these scientific investigation allows the viewer to understand the progression,  giving the sense of a visual journey in the main panorma.  These topics and their depiction enable the public as well as the community of science to clearly understand the sequencing that has occurred in recent scientific investigations as well as identify the effects that a single gene may have on human health as well as all society. The panoramic display and the use of the DNA molecule allows one to continuously move through the scientific discoveries of the genome from the microscopic, having implications at the molecular level, to macroscopic, having implications on populations. DNA acts as an undulating pathway of adventure which allows the viewer to visually travel from topic to topic. Areas of more intense color focus the viewer at each topic along the DNA trail.

Killer in the Blood

Killer in the Blood

This 3-page opening spread illustrates the malaria life cycle caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is designed to engage the readership and serve as the Table of Contents for Johns Hopkins Public Health Magazine’s Malaria Special Issue. Each panel introduces featured content: Panel 1 illustrates pathogenesis within an Anopheles mosquito; Panel 2 depicts the cycle within the human body; Panel 3 highlights Africa, particularly Zambia, a population deeply affected by malaria. Pregnant women and young children are at highest risk of succumbing to this disease. A blood vessel emphasizes flow and progression, guiding the viewer through each stage of the life
cycle, ultimately metamorphosing into the mosquito’s watery breeding environment. An overleaf (see inset*) verbally introduces the spread.

Health Maintenance in Children

Health Maintenance in Children

This illustration is one of the latest editorial pieces completed for the American Academy of Family Physicians featuring Health Maintenance in School-aged Children.

Abstract: The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

From “Health Maintenance in School-aged Children“: Part I. History, Physical Examination, Screening, and Immunizations, Riley M , Locke A B, Skye E P (March 15 2011 Vol. 83 No. 6)

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