Pollen Peepers

Pollen Peepers

Adaptive Radiation of the Pollen Peeper (from: An Origin of Species WGBH Evolution Initiatives ) For interactive web module about the evolutionary theory of Adaptive Radiation. The objectives of this project are to explore adaptive radiation, the evolutionary process by which a single species can diversify into many species, all with different adaptive traits, and to understand the factors that push and/or allow for different populations of the same species to diverge and eventually become separate species. Here a fictitious bird, the Pollen Peeper (based similarly to the North American House Finch and the Honey Creeper), is used as a model.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells

This illustration was created for a feature article in the October 2011 issue of the Washington University in St. Louis Alumni Magazine article by Steve Kohler.

“Professor Wayne Yokoyama, MD, long intrigued by the function of natural killer (NK) cells, has shown that NK cells, using a “licensing strategy,” are vitally important elements of the immune system. In 2010, on the occasion of accepting the Lee C. Howley Sr. Prize for his pioneering arthritis research, Wayne M. Yokoyama, MD, told his audience that real advances in science do not come from the close application of previously known arcane facts to solve difficult problems. Rather, he said, science requires taking risks to venture completely beyond what is known, pursuing nature’s secrets that she is not inclined to reveal easily. “There is art to science,” according to Yokoyama, who holds the Sam J. and Audrey Loew Levin Chair for Research in Arthritis.

A major leap in thinking then was required to realize that NK cells bind to MHC-1 just as T-cells do, but work in the opposite fashion. “When an NK cell sees an MHC-1 molecule, it doesn’t note that there is a foreign peptide being displayed. Instead, its job is to patrol for self, and when it binds to MHC-1, the NK cell is shut off,” Yokoyama explains. “Only when the self signal is insufficient is the NK cell released from its ‘off’ condition and freed to do its work.” That’s vitally important information, because viruses have evolved to depress MHC-1 in their attempt to evade T-cells. So NK cells serve an important role as a fail-safe in the immune system, effective when another of the body’s defenses has been blinded by tricky infections.

When an NK cell sees an MHC-1 molecule, it doesn’t note that there is a foreign peptide being displayed. Instead, its job is to patrol for self, and when it binds to MHC-1, the NK cell is shut off. Only when the self signal is insufficient is the NK cell released from its ‘off’ condition and freed to do its work,” Yokoyama explains. “That’s not the whole story, however, because NK cells also need to be activated.” (Illustration by Jennifer E. Fairman, CMI, FAMI)

Read the October 2011 Washington University in St. Louis Magazine article here: Rheumatologist Cracks Molecular Mystery.

Infant Thermometer Position

Infant Thermometer Position

Vicks Gentle Touch Behind the Ear Thermometer: Illustrations for instructions for use and positioning.

The Vicks Gentle Touch Behind Ear thermometer is set to revolutionise the way body temperature is taken in infants and children. With a simple touch, the thermometer is gentle enough to be used without waking a sleeping infant, while providing accurate measurements in one second.

The Vicks Gentle Touch Behind Ear thermometer uses a novel heat flow technique to measure the temperature of the blood carotid artery which runs behind the ear, bringing blood to the brain and hypothalamus (the temperature-regulating gland) and so accurately reflecting core body temperature.

A revolution in the way to take temperature: it measures the temperature from behind earlobe

  • Gentle: it measures temperature by simply touching behind ear lobe with a soft ring
  • Accurate: clinically proven
  • Accuracy: ± 0.2°C
  • Fast: only 1 sec. reading
  • Special sensor detects heathflow through the skin
  • Fever Insight® Feature: color-coded temperature display
  • Memory function: tracks last 8 measurements
  • Featuring a washable ring for extra hygiene
Health Maintenance in Children

Health Maintenance in Children

This illustration is one of the latest editorial pieces completed for the American Academy of Family Physicians featuring Health Maintenance in School-aged Children.

Abstract: The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

From “Health Maintenance in School-aged Children“: Part I. History, Physical Examination, Screening, and Immunizations, Riley M , Locke A B, Skye E P (March 15 2011 Vol. 83 No. 6)

Killer in the Blood

Killer in the Blood

This 3-page opening spread illustrates the malaria life cycle caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is designed to engage the readership and serve as the Table of Contents for Johns Hopkins Public Health Magazine’s Malaria Special Issue. Each panel introduces featured content: Panel 1 illustrates pathogenesis within an Anopheles mosquito; Panel 2 depicts the cycle within the human body; Panel 3 highlights Africa, particularly Zambia, a population deeply affected by malaria. Pregnant women and young children are at highest risk of succumbing to this disease. A blood vessel emphasizes flow and progression, guiding the viewer through each stage of the life
cycle, ultimately metamorphosing into the mosquito’s watery breeding environment. An overleaf (see inset*) verbally introduces the spread.

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